Phases of NLP

Phases of NLP

 Phases of NLP

Phases of NLP

1. Lexical Analysis and Morphological

  • This phase scans the source code as a stream of characters and converts it into meaningful lexemes. It divides the whole text.

2. Syntactic Analysis (Parsing)

  • Syntactic Analysis is used to check grammar, word arrangements, and shows relationship among the words.
  • Example:
    • Madurai goes to the chennai, does not make any sense, so this sentence is rejected by the Syntactic analyzer.

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3. Semantic Analysis

  • Semantic analysis is concerned with the meaning representation. It mainly focuses on the literal meaning of words.

4. Discourse Integration

  • Discourse Integration depends upon the sentences that proceeds it.

5. Pragmatic Analysis

  • It helps you to discover the intended effect by applying a set of rules that characterize cooperative dialogues.
  • For Example:
    • "Open the book" is interpreted as a request instead of an order.

Why NLP is difficult ?

  • NLP is difficult because Ambiguity and Uncertainty exist in the language.


  • There are the following three ambiguity -
    • Lexical Ambiguity
    • Syntactic Ambiguity
    • Referential Ambiguity

Lexical Ambiguity

  • Lexical Ambiguity exists in the presence of two or more possible meanings of the sentence within a single word.
  • Example:
    • Venkat is looking for a match.
    • The word match refers to that either Venkat is looking for a partner or Venkat is looking for a match(any games).

Syntactic Ambiguity

  • Syntactic Ambiguity exists in the presence of two or more possible meanings within the sentence.
  • Example:
    • I saw the lion with the binocular.
    • In the above example, did I have the binoculars? Or did the lion have the binoculars?

Referential Ambiguity

  • Referential Ambiguity exists when you are referring to something using the pronoun.
  • Example:
    • Kavitha went to Vinitha. She said, "I am hungry."
    • In the above sentence, you do not know that who is hungry, either Kavitha or Vinita.

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